Filed Under Museums

Building the Cleveland Museum of Art

1888 to 1916

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the museum movement was sweeping the United States. Some cities had long-established art museums while others looked to form new ones. Cities without permanent exhibition spaces welcomed traveling exhibits for short periods of time. Cleveland was one of these cities that lacked a permanent art museum, so it hosted traveling exhibitions at Central High School. A spate of influential art museum openings in the 1880s helped ignite local interest in securing a museum for Cleveland. In 1880 President Rutherford B. Hayes dedicated the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. With Cincinnati and Detroit founding art museums in 1881 and 1885, respectively, Clevelanders wanted a museum of their own. Some Cleveland artists were showing their work in the Met and made sure to note that they were unable to show their work in Cleveland due to the lack of a museum.

The first opportunity for a Cleveland art museum came with the death of Hinman Hurlburt. With the probating of his will in 1884 came the announcement that the majority of his estate and art collection should be put toward an art gallery. However, the part of his estate set for a museum would have to wait until his wife passed. The question, “Who will found for us a museum of art?” was posed at the Annual Patron Banquet for the Art School in 1888. This open call for creation of a museum in Cleveland continued to circulate and build momentum. These calls also brought whispers of potential donors. John Huntington contemplated creating a museum with the proposal of donating his personal art collection to Cleveland in 1889. The Art School also began to discuss plans for a combined museum and college. When Horace Kelley died late in the following year, he left most of his $500,000 estate for an art museum.

Two more years passed before the next big advance in museum plans. On December 25, 1892, Jeptha H. Wade II gifted a plot of land in Wade Park to the Kelley Art Trustees for the museum. The location in Wade Park was a little larger than four acres and sought after by Western Reserve University, the School of Art, and the Cleveland Park Commission. Wade originally expected the Kelley Art Trustees to pay for the parcel but chose to gift the land with newspaper announcements being made on Christmas Day. The acquisition of the land and the money from the Horace Kelley Trust led to increased pressure from Clevelanders asking for a museum to be built. Even with the land for the museum secured, seven more years passed before the Horace Kelley Trust set up a corporation for the museum.

Henry Clay Ranney was one of the trustees for both the Hurlburt and Kelley trusts, but he was also one of the executors of John Huntington’s estate. Huntington’s wishes for a museum were rumors until his death in 1893, when his will was released setting up a trust for a gallery and museum. Ranney, now trustee of all three estates, worked to unite all three to make one museum because he saw that they all had similar wishes. On March 16, 1899, Ranney sent off articles of incorporation to formally establish the Cleveland Museum of Art. He was elected as the first President of the museum that May. The newly formed Board of Trustees was composed of many notable men including J. H. Wade, George H. Worthington, Samuel Mather, William B. Sanders, Samuel Williamson, and Liberty Holden. John D. Rockefeller and Charles F. Brush were also elected but decided not to serve due to other engagements.

Despite the pressure to build immediately, preliminary steps toward the creation of the museum were being taken slowly. Another seven years passed before the architects Hubbell and Benes were chosen for the project in 1906. Preliminary plans were set in motion after the selection of the architects. In April 1907, a six-person committee discussed the first plans but called for revisions. The committee included Ranney, J. M. Jones, J. H. Wade, William Sanders, Liberty Holden, and Hermon Kelley. The committee traveled to Boston to talk to Edmund Wheelwright, the consulting architect for the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, and trekked across Europe taking notes, and its members continued to discuss and revise plans for another six years before building began.

During planning, battles erupted with the city over location disputes. The Museum Committee wanted to orient the museum east-west which would change the boundary of the land gifted by Wade, an action requiring city approval. The city rejected this proposal due to the cost to the city, but ultimately approved a new proposal in December 1908 with the building facing University Circle and Wade Lagoon to the south. The Committee and the city, particularly Mayor Tom Johnson, also disagreed on payment which was tied to when the museum would be open to the public. The Huntington will stipulated that the museum would offer admission-free days, but Mayor Johnson was trying to force the hand of when the free days would occur. The dispute ended with the conclusion of Johnson's five-term run in January 1910. Herman Baehr came into power and helped settle the dispute. Behind closed doors the Kelley Trust received a quitclaim deed from Wade to secure museum expansion in 20 to 30 years. More bad news came in March of that year. The Museum discovered that only $75,000 would come from the Hurlbut gift, not the original estimate of $500,000 that they had planned. The shortfall was resolved when the Huntington Trust agreed to pay two-thirds and the Kelley Trust one-third toward the cost of building, finally permitting the first steps to commence on building the museum.

The headline “First Stake Driven for Art Museum” introduced surveying action that occurred on the property in 1911 and Hubbell’s promise that the building would be completed in two years. Despite his claim of such a short build time, more challenges appeared. Even with the Huntington and Kelley Trusts taking on the cost, they were over their $1 million budget. The original plans centered around the three trusts were now questioned. The design committee went over a variety of new plans presented by Hubbell including new one-story options to help save money. Ultimately, they chose to go with a two-story option that gives the look of a single story from the north but presents a grander facade when viewed from across Wade Lagoon to the south. The design, rendered in white Georgian marble, reflected the Beaux-Arts influence that accompanied the pervasive City Beautiful movement of the time. In the fall of 1912, with little progress made, the Trustees blamed the architects for the delay of the museum. In the meantime, roads around the planned museum location were being constructed and by 1913 excavation was under way to move the Perry Monument from its spot in Wade Park to Gordon Park to make room for the museum. Excavation continued without pause until 1914 when police stopped construction due to missing permits. Along with missing permits, the plans for the building violated state building codes and Hubbell had to adjust the plans again to add more exits and reach code approval. After obtaining the proper permits, construction continued.

The museum committee announced the hiring of J. Arthur MacLean from the Boston Museum of Fine Arts to be the curator for the museum on September 6, 1914. Through the final phases of construction, the museum committee had calls for donations and searches for collections, but on June 7, 1916, it finally opened to the public. The accounts of opening night detailed it as marvelous and well attended. According to one, “the event marked the culmination of the dream and plans of thousands of Clevelanders to have a Cleveland art museum which would stand as a civic asset.” The museum was officially turned over to the people by the president of the museum association Judge William B. Sanders, who paid tribute to the founding donors John Huntington, Horace Kelley, and Jeptha Wade as well as the architects. The opening also welcomed new announcements for collection donations to help fill the museum’s galleries.

In addition to being known for its extraordinary collections, perhaps the Cleveland Museum of Art’s most singular attribute was its free days. From the start, the museum was open two days a week to the public at no charge. Not only was admission free but the museum was focused on education and provided free spaces for students to draw. This set the museum apart from art institutions in other cities. In keeping with its founding principles, the Cleveland Museum of Art later expanded this legacy, and its permanent collection is now always free to the public.

Images

Cleveland Museum of Art Under Construction
Cleveland Museum of Art Under Construction White Georgian marble rises on the skeleton frame of the new Cleveland Museum of Art. The original building eventually became known as the 1916 Building as the museum expanded through later additions in the 1950s, 1970s, and 2010s. Source: Cleveland Museum of Art Archives, negative #29563P Creator: Edd A. Ruggles Date: September 18, 1914
Herman Matzen's Vision
Herman Matzen's Vision Cleveland sculptor Herman Matzen imagined the future Cleveland Museum of Art as a series of separate buildings dotting Wade Park. Each would be in the style of the art it exhibited, such as an Egyptian temple filled with "treasures from the tombs of the Pharaohs." Matzen's vision remained just that, but the ultimate design of the museum's single building in 1916 did resemble Matzen's conception of classically designed structures. Source: Cleveland Plain Dealer Date: June 14, 1908
Plat Map of Wade Park
Plat Map of Wade Park Western Union Telegraph founder Jeptha Wade's estate became Wade Park, the site of the future Cleveland Museum of Art. Source: Cuyahoga County Archives
Rendering of CMA
Rendering of CMA The original museum building is shown in this architectural rendering. Like many cities, Cleveland was enamored with the classically inspired architecture that the City Beautiful movement, itself inspired by earlier ancient and Renaissance styles. Source: Cleveland Plain Dealer Date: January 17, 1909
Excavation and Preparations to Move Perry Statue
Excavation and Preparations to Move Perry Statue "Work has been started on the Cleveland museum of art building. Excavation for the foundation is well under way. The city is preparing to move Perry's monument from Wade park to Gordon park. The present site of the monument is on ground that is to be used for the art building. The monument will be located east of the bath house in Gordon park overlooking the waters of Lake Erie." [original photo caption] Source: Cleveland Plain Dealer, June 22, 1913
"First Stake Driven for Art Museum"
"First Stake Driven for Art Museum" Surveyors mark off the site where the Cleveland Museum of Art will be built over the next few years. Designed by the Cleveland-based firm of Hubbell and Benes, the museum building would be 800 feet long, 150 feet wide, and 50 feet tall. Source: Cleveland Plain Dealer, October 14, 1911
Interior Garden Court Looking East
Interior Garden Court Looking East Once completed, the Interior Garden Court featured a fountain pool and palms and tropical plants surrounded by brick walls. During the first phase of the museum's major renovation and expansion in 2008-09, this space was transformed into an Italian Baroque painting and sculpture gallery. Source: Cleveland Museum of Art Archives, negative #29564C Creator: Edd A. Ruggles Date: December 1, 1914
Inaugural Poster by Charles Burchfield
Inaugural Poster by Charles Burchfield "This poster is part of a collection of four posters submitted by students of the Cleveland School of Arts to the Cleveland Museum of Art under the auspices of Raph King. To encourage young artists, Mr. King sponsored a contest for posters to be used to promote the opening of the museum in 1916. There is no evidence that the posters were actually used for this purpose. Charles Burchfield was awarded the $25 third prize." [Original caption from CMA Archives] Source: Cleveland Museum of Art Archives, Cleveland Museum of Art Inaugural Exhibition Posters Creator: Charles Burchfield Date: 1915
Gallery I: Inaugural Exhibit
Gallery I: Inaugural Exhibit This is an installation view of the Inaugural Loan Exhibition on colonial American art, including early American silver, that ran from June 6 to September 20, 1916. Source: Cleveland Museum of Art Archives, negative #1916-00243 Date: 1916
Class in Armor Court
Class in Armor Court Source: Cleveland Museum of Art Archives, negative #02182 Date: 1920

Location

11150 East Boulevard, Cleveland, Ohio

Metadata

Jasmine Prezenkowski, “Building the Cleveland Museum of Art,” Cleveland Historical, accessed April 16, 2024, https://clevelandhistorical.org/index.php/items/show/970.