Terminal Tower

Description

Formally dedicated in 1930 following over four years of extensive demolition, excavation, and construction, the Cleveland Union Terminal centralized the city's passenger rail service and gave Cleveland a signature landmark, the 52-story, 708-foot tall Terminal Tower.

The Union Terminal project was conceived by brothers Oris P. and Mantis J. Van Sweringen in conjunction with the development of their other major project, the suburban community of Shaker Heights. They had initially planned to build only a small train station near Public Square in order to facilitate a quicker commute between Shaker and downtown. Eventually, however, the project grew more ambitious when the brothers proposed Public Square as an ideal site for a new, centralized rail station - originally planned to be built on the north end of the Mall as part of Daniel Burnham's Group Plan. In addition, the Van Sweringens scrapped the initial plans for a more modest 14-story office building to sit atop the new train station in favor of the massive 52-story Terminal Tower.

The shy, reclusive Van Sweringen brothers always shunned the spotlight, even opting not to attend the Union Terminal's grand opening ceremonies in 1930. Their effect on Cleveland and its development in the twentieth-century, however, remains on display today.

Video Show

The Van Sweringens

"What An Idea!"

Audio Show

It Was Like The Emerald City

Author Shawn Hoeffler remembers the excitement of approaching the city during family trips to Cleveland

An Ornate Skyscraper

Shawn Hoeffler on Terminal Tower's size and decoration

Ethnic Influences On The Tower

Norman Krumholz of Cleveland State University talks about what he sees as the ethnic influences on the Terminal Tower's architecture and design

Photos Show

Tower Construction, 1927

The concrete and steel supports for the tower reach nearly 250 feet below ground level.

Image courtesy of Cleveland State Library Special Collections

Terminal Tower, 1928

While the Terminal Tower itself was complete by 1928, the train station underneath it was not finished until 1930.

Image courtesy of Cleveland State University Special Collections

Early Tower Sketch, ca. 1919

A shorter version of the Terminal Tower is seen in this conceptual postcard, ca. 1919, made ahead of a public referendum on funding for the project.

Image courtesy of Cleveland State Library Special Collections

Train Schedule, 1930

The Union Terminal station, which saw peak use during World War II, was used for inter-city passenger trains until 1977. Today, the infrastructure is used as a hub for the city's rapid transit commuter trains.

Image courtesy of Cleveland State Library Special Collections

Terminal Station Postcard, 1927

This postcard depicts the subterranean train depot that would debut when the Union Terminal construction was completed in 1930.

Image courtesy of Cleveland State Library Special Collections

Public Square Portico

Image courtesy of the Library of Congress

Terminal Tower Main Lobby

Image courtesy of the Library of Congress

Excavation, 1926

The unprecedented engineering for the project included the demolition of more than 1,000 buildings and the construction of many bridges and viaducts for the railroad approaches.

Image courtesy of Cleveland State Library Special Collections

Cite this Page

“Terminal Tower,” Cleveland Historical, accessed April 18, 2014, http:/​/​clevelandhistorical.​org/​items/​show/​21.​
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